Ovarian Cancer: Symptoms, Causes, and Treatment

ovarian cancer

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Ovarian cancer is an insidious disease, characterized by a rapid proliferation of cells within the ovaries. As these cells multiply, they can invade and destroy healthy body tissue. As a result, makes it a serious health concern for women globally. This article seeks to provide a comprehensive overview of the disease, exploring its causes, symptoms, treatment options, and measures for risk reduction.

Understanding Ovarian Cancer

Ovarian cancer is recognized as a rapid and aggressive growth of abnormal cells within the ovaries. The ovaries are almond-sized organs, situated each to one side of the uterus, within the female reproductive system. These organs are responsible for egg (ova) production. They are also a primary source of the hormones estrogen and progesterone.

Identifying Symptoms

In its early stages, ovarian cancer is particularly elusive, often not causing any noticeable symptoms. However, when symptoms do occur, they tend to be mistakenly attributed to more common conditions. Identifiable symptoms of ovarian cancer may include:

  • Abdominal bloating or swelling
  • Feeling full quickly during meals
  • Weight loss
  • Discomfort in the pelvic area
  • Fatigue
  • Back pain
  • Changes in bowel habits, for instance, constipation
  • Frequent need to urinate

Recognizing these symptoms early on is vital for the effective management of the disease.

Underlying Causes of Ovarian Cancer

Even though the exact causes of ovarian cancer are still unknown, there are known risk factors that can increase vulnerability to the condition. It is thought to start when cells in or around the ovaries gain DNA abnormalities, leading to rapid growth and tumour development. These mutated cells continue living when healthy cells naturally die and can invade nearby tissues or metastasize to other parts of the body.

Types of Ovarian Cancer

The type of ovarian cancer is typically determined by the cell where the cancer originates, which impacts appropriate treatment measures. These types include:

  • Epithelial Ovarian Cancer: The most common form, it encompasses sub-types like serous carcinoma and mucinous carcinoma.
  • Stromal Tumors: Although rare, these tumours are usually diagnosed at an earlier stage than other forms.
  • Germ Cell Tumors: These rare ovarian cancers generally present at a younger age.

Risk Factors of Ovarian Cancer

Certain factors notably amplify the risk of ovarian cancer development:

  • Ageing: Ovarian cancer risk amplifies with age, being most commonly diagnosed in older adults.
  • Inherited Genetic Changes: A small percentage of ovarian cancers are instigated by inherited gene changes from parents, notably BRCA1 and BRCA2.
  • Family History: A higher risk is noted amongst individuals with blood relatives previously diagnosed with ovarian cancer.
  • Obesity: Increased body mass index (BMI) is a risk factor.
  • Hormone Replacement Therapy (HRT): Post-menopausal women using HRT may face an elevated risk.
  • Endometriosis: This painful disorder can also heighten risk.
  • Early Menstruation or Late Menopause: Early-onset menstruation or late menopause can contribute to risk.
  • Never Being Pregnant: Risk is increased for women who have never been pregnant (nulliparity).

Prevention Strategies

While there is no foolproof method to prevent ovarian cancer, certain measures may mitigate the risk:

Consider Birth Control Pills

Consult with your healthcare provider to assess whether oral contraceptives (birth control pills) are suitable for you. These medications have been shown to reduce the risk of ovarian cancer, though potential risks should be carefully weighed based on individual circumstances.

Discuss Risk Factors with Your Doctor

If you have a family history of breast and ovarian cancers, engage in a discussion with your healthcare provider. They can evaluate your personal cancer risk and may refer you to a genetic counsellor for further assessment. Genetic testing can determine if you carry gene mutations that predispose you to ovarian cancer. In such cases, surgical removal of the ovaries may be considered as a preventive measure.

Treatment Options

Once ovarian cancer is diagnosed, a multi-pronged approach to treatment becomes paramount. The choice of treatment depends on various factors, including the stage of cancer, its subtype, and the patient’s overall health. Here are the primary treatment modalities:


Surgery is often the initial step in treating ovarian cancer. The goal is to remove as much of the tumour as possible. In some cases, a hysterectomy (removal of the uterus) and bilateral salpingo-oophorectomy (removal of both ovaries and fallopian tubes) may be necessary.


Following surgery, chemotherapy is commonly administered to target any remaining cancer cells. Chemotherapy drugs circulate throughout the body, making them effective against cancer that may have spread. Targeted Therapy: Some ovarian cancers have specific molecular markers that can be targeted with precision medications. These drugs aim to inhibit the growth of cancer cells while minimizing damage to healthy tissue.

Radiation Therapy

While less common, radiation therapy may be used in specific situations, such as when cancer has spread to nearby tissues.


Emerging as a promising avenue, immunotherapy harnesses the body’s immune system to combat cancer cells. Clinical trials are ongoing to explore its effectiveness in ovarian cancer treatment.

By investing in our understanding of ovarian cancer, we can enhance early detection by health checkups, improve management strategies, and potentially reduce the impact of this significant health concern. Stay informed, stay vigilant. By choosing institutions like Avicenna International Hospital, you can benefit from personalized and compassionate care that hinges on the latest medical breakthroughs in this cancer treatment.

Can ovarian cancer be hereditary?

Yes, it can be hereditary. Women with a family history of the disease, especially those with BRCA gene mutations, have an increased risk.

What is the survival rate for ovarian cancer?

The survival rate varies depending on the stage at diagnosis. Early-stage cancer has a higher survival rate, while advanced-stage cases are more challenging to treat.

What are the long-term effects of ovarian cancer treatment?

The long-term effects of treatment vary, but they can include menopausal symptoms, infertility, and potential side effects from chemotherapy. Discuss any concerns with your healthcare team to manage these effects effectively.


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