Colon Cancer: Understanding, Detection, and Treatment

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Colon cancer, also known as colorectal cancer, is a condition that arises when there is an abnormal growth of cells in the colon. The colon is the first and longest part of the large intestine within the digestive system. Despite the fact that it can affect anyone at any age, this form of cancer is a serious health risk, especially for people over 65.

What is Colon Cancer?

Colon cancer typically originates as benign growths known as polyps inside the colon or rectum. It is the third most prevalent cancer in the US, a dangerous foe that may impact anybody, regardless of age or gender. While most polyps are not initially cancerous, some have the potential to transform into cancer over time. Polyps are frequently asymptomatic, emphasizing the significance of routine screening tests to discover and remove them, avoiding the development of colon cancer.

Symptoms of Colon Cancer

Symptoms may vary depending on the size and location of the tumour within the large intestine. Some common symptoms to watch out for include:

Change in Bowel Habits

Such as more frequent diarrhoea or constipation.

Rectal Bleeding

Presence of blood in the stool.

Abdominal Discomfort

Ongoing discomfort in the belly area, such as cramps, gas,
or pain.

Incomplete Bowel Movements

A sensation that the bowel doesn’t empty fully during a bowel movement.

Weakness and Fatigue

Unexplained tiredness or weakness.

Unintentional Weight Loss

Losing weight without trying.

What Causes Colon Cancer?

While the precise causes of colon cancer remain uncertain, it is believed to occur due to DNA changes in colon cells. These genetic changes cause cells to grow quickly and remain longer than their healthy counterparts, resulting in tumour development. Metastatic cancer occurs when cancer cells break out from the initial tumour location and spread to other areas of the body.

Risk Factors

Several factors increase the risk of developing colon cancer, including:

  • Age
  • Race
  • Personal History
  • Inflammatory Bowel Diseases
  • Inherited Syndromes
  • Family History
  • Diet
  • Lack of Physical Activity
  • Diabetes and Obesity
  • Smoking and Alcohol
  • Previous Radiation Therapy

Prevention and Screening

Screening for Colon Cancer

Doctors recommend that individuals with an average risk of colon cancer should consider starting screening around age 45. However, those with higher risk factors, including a family history, should begin screening earlier. Various screening tests are available, and the choice of which to pursue should be discussed with your healthcare team.

Lifestyle Changes to Reduce Risk

Making certain lifestyle changes can help reduce the risk of colon cancer:

Dietary Choices: Consume a variety of fruits, vegetables, and whole grains rich in vitamins, minerals, fibre, and antioxidants.

Moderate Alcohol Consumption

Smoking Cessation

Regular Exercise: Strive for at least 30 minutes of exercise most days of the week.

Maintain a Healthy Weight

Detection and Diagnosis of Colon Cancer

Timely detection of colon cancer is pivotal for successful treatment. Several screening methods are available, and your doctor will recommend the most suitable one based on your risk factors and age.


A colonoscopy is the gold standard for colon cancer screening. During this procedure, a flexible tube with a camera is inserted into the colon to detect polyps or cancerous growths. If any abnormalities are found, they can be biopsied or removed during the same procedure.

Fecal Occult Blood Test (FOBT)

This simple test checks for the presence of blood in stool samples. While it cannot diagnose colon cancer, it can indicate the need for further evaluation.

Virtual Colonoscopy

It is also known as CT colonography. This non-invasive procedure uses CT scans to create detailed images of the colon. It’s an alternative for those who may not tolerate a traditional colonoscopy.

Colon Cancer Treatment Options

Should you or a loved one receive a colon cancer diagnosis, rest assured that there are advanced and effective treatment options available.


Surgery is often the first line of defence against colon cancer. The goal is to remove the tumour and any affected surrounding tissue. Depending on the stage and location of the cancer, different surgical approaches may be considered.


Chemotherapy involves the use of powerful medications to target and destroy cancer cells. It can be administered before or after surgery, depending on the cancer’s stage.

Radiation Therapy

In some cases, radiation therapy may be recommended to shrink tumours or as part of a comprehensive treatment plan.


Immunotherapy harnesses the body’s immune system to fight cancer. It has shown promising results in the colon cancer treatment of advanced cancer.

In conclusion, colon cancer is a serious condition with several risk factors, but it can often be prevented or detected early through regular screening and healthy lifestyle choices.
If you have any questions, need further information, or wish to schedule a health checkup or consultation with our experienced medical professionals, please do not hesitate to get in touch. Avicenna International Hospital is here to assist you on your journey towards better health and a brighter future.

Can I prevent colon cancer?

While you can’t guarantee you won’t get cancer, you can reduce your risk by:
Eating a diet high in fruits, vegetables, and fibre.
Exercising regularly.
Limiting red and processed meats.
Avoiding smoking and excessive alcohol.
Getting screened regularly, especially if you have a family history or other risk factors.

Is colon cancer treatable if it’s advanced?

Yes, even advanced conditions can be treated. While the prognosis may not be as favourable as in the early stages, treatments like chemotherapy, radiation, and targeted therapy can help manage the disease and improve quality of life.

Can colon cancer be hereditary?

Yes, a family history of colon cancer or certain genetic syndromes can increase the risk of developing the disease.

How often should one undergo colon cancer screening?

Screening recommendations vary, but generally, individuals should start screening at age 45-50 and follow their healthcare provider’s guidance.


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